Micro-irrigation has the advantage of: (1) increasing beneficial use of available water; (2) improving fertilizer and other chemical application; (3) enhancing plants growth and yield; (4) eliminating weed growth; (5) decreasing energy requirements; (6) improving cultural practices; reducing salinity hazard to plants; etc. Starting from the goals of high quality, high and stable yield, water saving, efficient utilization of fertilizers and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, advanced precise micro-irrigation & fertigation technology has become the fundamental trend of irrigation development in the world.
However, microirrigation farmland in arid area is the same as other irrigation farmland. Salt in the irrigation water is into soil with irrigation water in the process of irrigation and salt contented in the soil moves to the periphery of the wet peak. If the wet range cannot be lapped and the effective salt leaching water cannot be produced The soil salinization will occur due to salt accumulation in the soil gradually. On the other hand, if the amount of salt leaching water is too large, the groundwater level will also rise, leading to secondary salinization of soil. In addition, microirrigation farmland also needs effective drainage system, but the total dissolved soluble mass content in the drainage water is higher than that of surface irrigation. So, it is need to consider that the way out of the drainage water with high salinity content so as not to affect the surrounding environment. Therefore, it is very important to maintain the balance of soil salinity with good effect and strong operability of precise water and salt regulation and drainage methods.
In the past 27 years, we have carried out long-term systematic research on microirrigation theory and technology, including hydraulic analysis and design, microirrigation system model suitable for different users and its key equipment (filtration systems, fertilizer injection systems, control systems, etc.), farmland water and nutrient management methods, irrigation and fertigation scheduling, and salinization preventing method etc. This lecture is going to introduce the advanced microirrigation technology with precision water and salt management based on our research results. The contents include introduce of microirrigation, effects of irrigation frequency on crop growth and water use, effects of controlling soil matric potential on crop growth and water use, irrigation scheduling for efficient use of water, irrigation scheduling for both purposes of irrigation and salt leaching, and several drip irrigation systems for different types of users.
Prof. Yaohu Kang
Yaohu Kang, obtained his Ph.D in 1997, from the United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Ehime University, Japan, obtained his Master degree in. 1994, from the School of Agricultural Science, Kagawa University, Japan, obtained his Bachelor degree in Jul, 1986, from the Department of Soil-Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University and he is a Professor, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resource Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing-China. Prof. Yaohu Kang, joined the Institute of Desert Research, CAS, as a Research assistant from Jul. 1986 to Jan. 1992, Professor from Dec. 1997 to Sep. 1999, Institute of Geography, CAS, and he is currently a Professor from Sep, 1999 at the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing, China.
He is distinguished Chair Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Professor at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Vice Chairman, Microirrigation Branch, China Association of Irrigation Area and Pre Director, Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes. Associate editor, ?Resource Science?.
Prof. Kang has a long history of research in the fields of water cycle in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continum (SPAC), microirrtation and sprinkler irrigation, saline water irrigation, saline-alkali soil utilization for agriculture (enclouding vegetation construction), hydraulic analysis and design of microirrigation systems, equipment development of microirrigation systems. He was Awarded by Talent Planning: The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (2001). The Hundred Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for 2006.
Prof. Kang has made internationally known achievements in both theoretical and technological aspects of microirrigation and sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation with saline water and saline soil utilization for agriculture. He published more than 270 papers, obtained about 30 national patents, 9 software copyrights, and he was one of main members, set two national standards and two national professional standards.
Dr Evan W. Christen
Born into a tea estate in Kenya, brought up in Zambia and educated in England as an Agricultural Engineer, I arrived in Australia to do a PhD with the CSIRO at the Griffith laboratory in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area. For my PhD I researched cost effective methods for managing waterlogging and salinity in irrigated agriculture. He remained 17 years with CSIRO researching natural resource management, of which about 15 years were as a Project leader and about 10 years as a Team leader. In this time I was principal investigator/project leader on about 16 projects.
Dr. Christen has researched irrigation management, waterlogging and salinity control, design and management of evaporation basins, the reuse of irrigation drainage, sewage and winery wastewaters for irrigation, regional management of irrigation and drainage waters, remote sensing of crop evapotranspiration and social and economic issues related to irrigation and their dependent communities. The research included many countries including Pakistan, China, Cambodia, Iraq, Egypt, California and South Korea.
Between 2012-17 he was Research Program Manager for Land and Water Resources at the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). The program had a portfolio of around 25 projects in about 10 countries in South Asia, Mekong region and north and south eastern Africa). The projects ranged from soil and water management in rainfed agriculture to improving irrigation productivity and analysis of institutional and social aspects of local and regional water management.
In 2017 Dr. Evan Christen established a consultancy company Penevy Services Pty Ltd. currently working with the Australian National University on irrigation related research in Africa, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research on program management, monitoring and evaluation and development of technical reports, policy briefs and public communications articles and the International Development Research Centre (Canada) on farmer led irrigation in Africa.
Dr. Faycel Chenini
Dr. Faycel Chenini, is a Tunisian citizen, he is a Senior Water Expert with an experience of 25 years at international level in Africa and in the Near East region, particularly in the following sectors: Integrated water resources and irrigation management, Water policy development, Water governance, Non-conventional water resources, Technical assistance and supervision of the countries projects, programmes, strategies and policies related to water resources management, capacity development. He has significant experience with FAO (around 15 years as an International Consultant / Advisor and Senior Technical Assistant / Project Coordinator / Project Manager) in the fields of water resources management, water policy, water governance, irrigation, non-conventional water reuse, climate change and capacity development in the Near East and North Africa region.
Dr. Mohamed Wahba
Dr. Mohamed Wahba has many years of integrated and diverse experience starting from the field work and supervision of the implementation of projects for irrigation and drainage, research work and field studies, evaluation of the use of modern technologies in drainage networks and the use of drainage water for irrigation as well as savings in irrigation water, Development and management of water resources, including the preparation, design and implementation of policies and strategies, in addition to supervision and follow-up implementation of large projects. Planning and implementation of coastal protection projects and currently preparing the training strategy of the Ministry, designing and implementing various training programs in all fields related to water resources, irrigation and drainage, training needs assessment plans and capacity building for all different functions at the ministry level.
Dr. Wahba, representative of the Egyptian government in several international and regional forums, including the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), where he was elected as Vice-President of ICID., a representative of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation of the ESCWA Committee, coordinator of cooperation between the Ministry and similar ministries in China and Iraq, he was the former chairman of ENCID and now he is vice president honorary of ICID, Chairman of the African regional Working Group (AFRWG) & chairman of Capacity Development, Training and Education Working Group (CDTE-WG) of ICID and he is a guest researcher in Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resource Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing-China..